My Last Farewell (TAGALOG, SPANISH and ENGLISH)

Mi Ultimo Adiós by Jose Rizal

This was the last poem written by Filipino national hero Jose Rizal before he was executed in Manila on December 30, 1896. It was untitled, but Filipinos refer to it as ‘Mi Ultimo Adios’ (English translation: My Last Farewell) and have variously translated it into Tagalog as Huling Paalam and Ang Aking Huling Paalam.
Mi Ultimo Adios
Adios, Patria adorada, region del sol querida,
Perla del Mar de Oriente, nuestro perdido Eden!
A darte voy alegre la triste mustia vida,
Y fuera más brillante más fresca, más florida,
Tambien por tí la diera, la diera por tu bien.

En campos de batalla, luchando con delirio
Otros te dan sus vidas sin dudas, sin pesar;
El sitio nada importa, ciprés, laurel ó lirio,
Cadalso ó campo abierto, combate ó cruel martirio,
Lo mismo es si lo piden la patria y el hogar.

Yo muero cuando veo que el cielo se colora
Y al fin anuncia el día trás lóbrego capuz;
Si grana necesitas para teñir tu aurora,
Vierte la sangre mía, derrámala en buen hora
Y dórela un reflejo de su naciente luz.

Mis sueños cuando apenas muchacho adolescente,
Mis sueños cuando joven ya lleno de vigor,
Fueron el verte un día, joya del mar de oriente
Secos los negros ojos, alta la tersa frente,
Sin ceño, sin arrugas, sin manchas de rubor.

Ensueño de mi vida, mi ardiente vivo anhelo,
Salud te grita el alma que pronto va á partir!
Salud! ah que es hermoso caer por darte vuelo,
Morir por darte vida, morir bajo tu cielo,
Y en tu encantada tierra la eternidad dormir.

Si sobre mi sepulcro vieres brotar un dia
Entre la espesa yerba sencilla, humilde flor,
Acércala a tus labios y besa al alma mía,
Y sienta yo en mi frente bajo la tumba fría
De tu ternura el soplo, de tu hálito el calor.

Deja a la luna verme con luz tranquila y suave;
Deja que el alba envíe su resplandor fugaz,
Deja gemir al viento con su murmullo grave,
Y si desciende y posa sobre mi cruz un ave,
Deja que el ave entone su cantico de paz.

Deja que el sol ardiendo las lluvias evapore
Y al cielo tornen puras con mi clamor en pos,
Deja que un sér amigo mi fin temprano llore
Y en las serenas tardes cuando por mi alguien ore
Ora tambien, oh Patria, por mi descanso á Dios!

Ora por todos cuantos murieron sin ventura,
Por cuantos padecieron tormentos sin igual,
Por nuestras pobres madres que gimen su amargura;
Por huérfanos y viudas, por presos en tortura
Y ora por tí que veas tu redencion final.

Y cuando en noche oscura se envuelva el cementerio
Y solos sólo muertos queden velando allí,
No turbes su reposo, no turbes el misterio
Tal vez acordes oigas de citara ó salterio,
Soy yo, querida Patria, yo que te canto á ti.

Y cuando ya mi tumba de todos olvidada
No tenga cruz ni piedra que marquen su lugar,
Deja que la are el hombre, la esparza con la azada,
Y mis cenizas antes que vuelvan á la nada,
El polvo de tu alfombra que vayan á formar.

Entonces nada importa me pongas en olvido,
Tu atmósfera, tu espacio, tus valles cruzaré,
Vibrante y limpia nota seré para tu oido,
Aroma, luz, colores, rumor, canto, gemido
Constante repitiendo la esencia de mi fé.

Mi patria idolatrada, dolor de mis dolores,
Querida Filipinas, oye el postrer adios.
Ahi te dejo todo, mis padres, mis amores.
Voy donde no hay esclavos, verdugos ni opresores,
Donde la fé no mata, donde el que reyna es Dios.

Adios, padres y hermanos, trozos del alma mía,
Amigos de la infancia en el perdido hogar,
Dad gracias que descanso del fatigoso día;
Adios, dulce extrangera, mi amiga, mi alegría,
Adios, queridos séres morir es descansar.

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Huling Paalam

Salin ito ng huling sinulat ni Rizal nguni’t walang pamagat. Sinulat niya ito sa Fort Santiago, isinilid sa kusinilyang dealkohol, at ibinigay sa kapatid na si Trinidad nang huling dumalaw sa kaniya bago siya (Rizal) barilin.

Ang tulang kilala ngayon sa pamagat na “Ultimo Adios” o “Huling Paalam” ang likhang-guro o obra maestra ni Rizal. Ang orihinal sa kastila ay isinalin na sa mga pangunahing wika sa daigdif, tulad ng Ingles, Prances, Aleman, Italyano, Nippongo, Malyo, at marami pang iba, gayon din sa iba’t ibang wikain sa Pilipinas, tulad ng Tagalog , Ilokano, kapampangan, Pangasinan, Bikol, Sugbuhanion, Hiligaynon, at iba pa.

Maraming nagsalin ng tula sa Tagalog, nguni’t ang pinakakaraniwang bigkasin at siyang matatagpuan sa Luneta ay ang salin ni Jose Gatmaytan na matutunghayan dito. Ang kahuli-hulihang tulang ito ni Rizal ay tigib ng kalungkutan pagka’t maiiwan na niya ang kaniyang mga minamahal sa buhay at mawawalay na siya sa kaniyang bayan. Sa harap ng kamatayan, wala siyang hiniling para sa sarili; ang lahat ay para sa kapakanan ng kaniyang mga kababayan at ng kaniyang bayan.

Paalam na, sintang lupang tinubuan,
Bayang masagana sa init ng araw,
Edeng maligaya sa ami’y pumanaw
At perlas ng dagat sa dakong Silangan.

Inihahandog ko ng ganap na tuwa
Sa iyo yaring buhay na lanta na’t aba;
Naging dakila ma’y iaalay rin nga
Kung dahil sa iyong ikatitimawa.

Ang nanga sa digmaan dumog sa paglaban
Handog din sa iyo ang kanilang buhay,
Hirap ay di pansin at di gunamgunam
Ang pagkaparool o pagtagumpay.

Bibitaya’t madlang mabangis na sakit
O pakikibakang lubhang mapanganib,
Pawang titiisin kung ito ang nais
Ng baya’t tahanang pinakaiibig.

Ako’y mamamatay ngayong minamalas
Ang kulay ng langit na nanganganinag
Ibinababalang araw ay sisikat
Sa kabila niyang mapanglaw na ulap.

Kung dugo ang iyong kinakailangan
Sa ikadidilag ng iyong pagsilang,
Dugo ko’y ibubo’t sa isa man lamang
Nang gumigiti mong sinag ay kuminang.

Ang mga nasa ko, mulang magkaisip,
Magpahanggang ngayon maganap ang bait,
Ang ikaw’y makitnag hiyas na marikit
Ng dagat Silangan na nakaliligid.

Noo mo’y maningning at sa mga mata
Mapait na luha bakas ma’y wala na,
Wala ka ng poot, wala ng balisa,
Walang kadungua’t munti mang pangamba,

Sa sandaling buhay maalab kong nais
Ang kagalingan mo’t ang paiwang sulit
Ng kaluluwa king gayak ng aalis:
Ginhawa’y kamtan mo! Anong pagkarikit!

Nang maaba’t ikaw’y mapataas lamang,
Mamatay at upang mabigyan kang buihay,
Malibing sa lupang puspos ng karika’t
Sa silong ng iyong langit ay mahimlay.

Kung sa ibang araw ikaw’y may mapansin
Nipot na bulaklak sa aba kong libing,
Sa gitna ng mga damong masisinsin,
Hagka’t ang halik mo’y itaos sa akin.

Sa samyo ng iyong pagsuyong matamis,
Mataos na taghoy ng may sintang sibsib,
Bayang tumaggap noo ko ng init,
Na natatabunan ng lupang malamig.

Bayan mong ako’y malasin ng buwan
Sa liwang niyang hilano’t malamlam;
Bayan ihatid sa aking liwayway
Ang banaang niyang dagling napaparam.

Bayaang humalik ang simoy ng hangin;
Bayaang sa huning masaya’y awitin
Ng darapong ibon sa kurus ng libing
Ang buhay payapang ikinaaaliw.

Bayaang ang araw na lubhang maningas
Pawiin ang ulan, gawing pawang ulap,
Maging panganuring sa langit umakyat,
At ang aking daing ay mapakilangkap.

Bayaang ang aking maagang pagpanw,
Itangis ng isnag lubos na nagmamahal;
Kung may umalala sa akin ng dasal,
Ako’y iyo sanang idalangin naman.

Idalangin mo rin ang di nagkapalad,
Na nangamatay na’t yaong nanganhirap
sa daming pasakit, at ang lumalangap
naming mga ina luhang masaklap.

Idalangin sampo ng bawa’t ulila
at nangapipiit na tigib ng dusa;
idalangin mo ring ikaw’y matubos na
sa pagkaaping laong binata.

Kung nababalot na ang mga libingan
Ng sapot na itim ng gabing mapanglaw,
at wala ng tanod kundi pawing patay,
huwang gambalain ang katahimikan.

Pagpitagan mo ang hiwagang lihim,
at mapapakinggan ang tinig marahil,
ng isang saltero: Ito nga’y ako ring
inaawitanka ng aking paggiliw.

Kung ang libingan kong limot na ang madla
ay wala nang kurus at bato mang tanda
sa nangangabubukid ay ipaubayang
bungkali’t isabog ang natipong lupa.

Ang mga abo ko’y bago pailanglang
mauwi sa wala na pinaggalingan,
ay makalt munag parang kapupunanng
iyong alabok sa lupang tuntungan.

Sa gayo’y walaa ng anoman sa akin,
na limutin mo ma’t aking lilibutin
ang himpapawid mo kaparanga’t hangin
at ako sa iyo’y magiging taginting.

Bango, tinig, higing, awit na masaya
liwanag aat kulay na lugod ng mata’t
uulit-ulitin sa tuwi-tuwina.

Ako’y yayao na sa bayang payapa,
na walang alipi’t punoing mapang-aba,
doo’y di nanatay ang paniniwala
at ang naghahari Diyos na dakila.

Paalam anak, magulang, kapatid,
bahagi ng puso’t unang nakaniig,
ipagpasalamat ang aking pag-alis
sa buhay na itong lagi ng ligalig.

Paalam na liyag, tanging kaulayaw,
taga ibang lupang aking katuwaan,
paaalam sa inyo, mga minamahal;
mamatay ay ganap na katahimikan.

Bernardino Owano
1901 – 2001

Jose Rizal

Webmaster’s Note: My dad (Luis Owano) gave me a letter my grandfather, Bernardino Owano, had written on February 28, 1984. We would like to share this letter and accompanying poem — in English and in Spanish — with you.

Cocoa, Fl. Feb. 28, 1984

Dear Lou,

Today is a cool windy day here. The expected high only in the low 60s. So I am staying inside and write a few letters. I came across a Spanish poem written by one of the Filipino heroes which you may enjoy reading. Of course I have tried to translate into English which is really hard to bring out the very essence and sentiment of his thoughts. This man — Jose Rizal was executed by the Spanish firing squad because of his protest against the malpractices and tyrany[sic] during the dark days of colonial struggle. He wrote books to point out the bad practices of the time. Two of his books were the “Reign of Greed” and “The Social Cancer.” He wrote this poem in the darkness of his cell on the eve of his execution and hid it in an alcohol lamp. I am sending you both the Spanish and the Eng. as Cathy may like to read it.

Lou, Ferdinan Magellan and Miguel Lopez de Ligaspi brought the rich European blood to the Philippines which up to this day still runs in the veins of most Filipinos even though already amalgamated in gracious mixture with that of the Orient. In your veins runs some of the Europeans, the Orient and the West. I think it is fitting that you should know that from the Oriental blood that you have inherited there are some rich qualities in it. He (Rizal) spoke 8 languages besides many of the 87 dialects we have in the Philippines. He earned his degree of medicine and Phylosophy[sic] at the University of Madrid and later studied in Paris, Brussels, London and Germany where he acquired his many other degrees.

An imposing monument on the Lunita Park, Manila, today marks the place where Rizal fell before the Spanish firing squad. Many Spanish writers think that it would have taken a very cool man with a high caliber of thinking to write such beautiful thoughts on the very eve of his execution. He was only 35 years old. What a waste of talent! Tell me what you think of it.

I hope you are going through the winter without any ailment. We are all fine here. Take good care.

Love to all.
Dad

Last Farewell
By Dr. Jose Rizal; Translated by Bernardino Owano

Farewell, adored Fatherland, the sun’s beloved clime,
Pearl of the Orient seas, our lost Paradise;
Gladly now I give thee this faded, languid life:
If it were brighter, fresher, or more blest
Still would I give it thee; I would give it for thy sake.

On the fields of battle, madly struggling with frenzy,
Others give thee their lives, without doubts, without regrets;
The place matters not; cypress, laurel or lily,
Scaffold or open country, combat or cruel martyrdom,
All are alike if needed by home and country.

I die as I see dawn brighten the sky,
And at last herald the day behind this dismal night.
If you needst crimson to tinge thy dawn,
Shed my blood, pour it in the hour of need,
With it I give thee a likeness of thy own light.

My dreams, even in early adolescence,
My dreams, in youth, then overflowing with vigor,
Were one day, to see thee, gem of the Orient seas,
Dry they ebony eyes, hold thy brow serene,
Without frowns, without furrows, nor stigma of shame.

The dreams of my life, my ardent, living desire,
Hail to thee! greets the soul which hurriedly departs,
Hail to thee! oh, how lovely to fall that thou mayest rise,
To die to give thee life, to die underneath thy skies,
And to sleep all eternity in thy enchanted earth!

If over my tomb, one day thou seest grow,
Amidst dense weeds, a simple, humble flower,
Draw it to thy lips, ’tis the flower of my soul
And I shall feel on my brow, beneath the cold tomb,
The flow of thy tenderness, the warmth of thy breath.

Let the moon watch me with soft tranquil light,
Let the dawn send its swiftly fleeting brightness,
Let the wind moan its solemn murmurs,
And if a bird descends and on my cross alights,
Let the bird sing its canticle of peace!

Let the burning sun evaporate the rains,
In the sky let them turn pure with my pursuing anguish;
Let a friendly soul weep over my untimely end,
And in the still evenings, when someone prays for me,
Pray too, oh Fatherland, that in God I rest!

Pray for all who died without happiness,
For all those who perished in unequaled torments,
For our unhappy mothers who moan in bitterness,
For orphans and widows, for tortured prisoners,
and pray for thee, that thou mayest see thy liberty!

And when at night the graveyard is wrapped in darkness,
And only, only the dead remain there keeping watch,
Disturb not its peace, disturb not the mystery,
Perhaps thou mayest hear a zither or a rosary:
‘Tis I beloved Country, I, who sing unto thee!

And when alas! my tomb, forgotten by all,
Has neither cross nor stone to mark its place,
Let men plow it, let be scatter with spade,
And my remains, before they return to nothingness,
May they form the dust of thy earthly floor . . .

Then it matters not if I am consigned to oblivion,
In the air, through thy space, over thy vales shall I fly,
Vibrant and distinct sound shall I be to thy ears;
Fragrance, light, rainbow, murmur, song, groaning,
Constantly repeat the essence of my faith.

My idolized Country, grief of my griefs,
Beloved Philippines, hear now my last farewell!
Here I leave thee all: my parents, my loved ones,
I go whither there are no slaves, tyrants or oppressors,
Where faith never kills, where God alone Reigns.

Farewell, parents and brothers, torn from my own soul.
Friends of my childhood days in our home dispossessed,
Be grateful that I rest from the wearisome day!
Farewell to thee, sweet stranger, my friend, my happiness!
Farewell, beloved creatures all! to die is to rest!

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World population

World population
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
World population estimates from 1800 to 2100, based on “high”, “medium” and “low” United Nations projections in 2010 (colored red, orange and green) and US Census Bureau historical estimates (in black). Actual recorded population figures are colored in blue. According to the highest estimate, the world population may rise to 16 billion by 2100; according to the lowest estimate, it may decline to 6 billion.

The world population is the total number of living humans on Earth. As of March 26, 2014, it is estimated to number 7.158 billion by the United States Census Bureau (USCB).[1] The USCB estimates that the world population exceeded 7 billion on March 12, 2012.[2] According to a separate estimate by the United Nations Population Fund, it reached this milestone on October 31, 2011.[3][4][5]

The world population has continuously grown since the end of the Great Famine and the Black Death in 1350, when it was near 370 million.[6] The fastest growth rates – global population increases above 1.8% per year – occurred briefly during the 1950s, and for longer during the 1960s and 1970s. The global growth rate peaked at 2.2% in 1963, and has declined to below 1.1% as of 2012.[7] Total annual births were highest in the late 1980s at about 138 million,[8] and are now expected to remain essentially constant at their 2011 level of 134 million, while deaths number 56 million per year, and are expected to increase to 80 million per year by 2040.[9]

The UN projects steadily declining population growth in the near future, with the global population expected to become between 8.3 and 10.9 billion by 2050.[10][11] UN Population Division estimates for the year 2150 range between 3.2 and 24.8 billion;[12] one of many independent mathematical models supports the lower estimate.[13] Some analysts have questioned the sustainability of further world population growth, highlighting the growing pressures on the environment, global food supplies, and energy resources.[14][15][16]
World population (millions)[17]
# Top ten most populous countries 1990 2008 2025*
1 China 1,141 1,333 1,458
2 India 849 1,140 1,398
3 United States 250 304 352
4 Indonesia 178 228 273
5 Brazil 150 192 223
6 Pakistan 108 166 226
7 Bangladesh 116 160 198
8 Nigeria 94 151 208
9 Russia 148 142 137
10 Japan 124 128 126
World total 5,265 6,688 8,004
Top ten most populous (%) 60.0% 58.9% 57.5%
1 Asia 1,613 2,183 2,693
+ China 1,141 1,333 1,458
+ OECD Pacific* 187 202 210
2 Africa 634 984 1,365
3 Europe* 564 603 659
+ Russia 148 142 137
+ ex-Soviet Union* 133 136 146
4 Latin America 355 462 550
5 North America* 359 444 514
6 Middle East 132 199 272
Australia 17 22 28
European Union – 27 states 473 499 539
US + Canada 278 338 392
Ex-Soviet Union 289 285 289
Geographical definitions as in IEA Key Stats 2010 p. 66
Notes:

Europe = OECD Europe + Non-OECD Europe and
excluding Russia and including Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
ex-Soviet Union (SU) = SU excluding Russia and Baltic states
North America = US, Canada, Mexico
OECD Pacific = Australia, Japan, Korea, New Zealand
2025 = with constant annual 2007/2008 growth until 2025

Contents

1 Population by region
1.1 Population by continent
2 History
2.1 Antiquity and Middle Ages
2.2 Modern era
2.3 Milestones by the billions
3 Global demographics
4 Largest populations by country
4.1 Most densely populated countries
5 Fluctuation
5.1 Projections
5.2 Population growth by region
6 Mathematical approximations
6.1 Years for world population to double
7 Overpopulation
7.1 Predictions of scarcity
7.2 Environmental impacts
7.3 Population control
7.4 Overpopulation as a myth
8 Number of humans who have ever lived
8.1 Estimation methodologies
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links

Population by region

Six of Earth’s seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous continent, with its 4.3 billion inhabitants accounting for 60% of the world population. The world’s two most populated countries alone, China and India, together constitute about 37% of the world’s population. Africa is the second most populated continent, with around 1 billion people, or 15% of the world’s population. Europe’s 733 million people make up 12% of the world’s population (as of 2012), while the Latin American and Caribbean regions are home to around 600 million (9%). Northern America, primarily consisting of the United States and Canada, has a population of around 352 million (5%), and Oceania, the least-populated region, has about 35 million inhabitants (0.5%).[18] Though it is not permanently inhabited by any fixed population, Antarctica has a small, fluctuating international population, based mainly in polar science stations. This population tends to rise in the summer months and decrease significantly in winter, as visiting researchers return to their home countries.[19]
Population by continent
Continent Density
(inhabitants/km2) Population
(billions, 2013 estimates) Most populous country Most populous city
Asia 96.4 4.298 China (1,361,000,000)[20] Japan Greater Tokyo Area (35,676,000)
Africa 36.7 1.111 Nigeria (173,120,000) Egypt Cairo (19,439,541)
Europe 72.9 0.742 Russia (143,600,000;
approx. 110 million in Europe) Russia Moscow (14,837,510)
North America[21] 22.9 0.565 United States (317,000,000) Mexico Mexico City/Metro Area (8,851,080 / 21,163,226)
South America 22.8 0.407 Brazil (201,032,714) Brazil São Paulo City/Metro Area (11,316,149 / 27,640,577)
Oceania 4.5 0.038 Australia (23,258,000) Australia Sydney (4,575,532)
Antarctica 0.0003
(varies) 0.000 004
(non-permanent, varies)[22] N/A[note 1] McMurdo Station (1,200) (non-permanent, varies)
History
See also: World population estimates and History of the world
Antiquity and Middle Ages
Main articles: Classical demography and Medieval demography

Until the development of agriculture around the 11th millennium BC, it is estimated that the world population stabilized at about three million people,[23] who subsisted through hunting and foraging – a lifestyle that by its nature ensured a low population density. The total world population probably never exceeded 15 million inhabitants before the invention of agriculture.[24] By contrast, it is estimated that around 50–60 million people lived in the combined eastern and western Roman Empire in the 4th century AD.[25]

The plague which first emerged during the reign of Emperor Justinian caused Europe’s population to drop by around 50% between the 6th and 8th centuries AD.[26] The population of Europe was more than 70 million in 1340.[27] The Black Death pandemic of the 14th century may have reduced the world’s population from an estimated 450 million in 1340 to between 350 and 375 million in 1400;[28] it took roughly 200 years for Europe’s population to regain its 1340 level.[29] China experienced a population decline from an estimated 123 million around 1200 to an estimated 65 million in 1393,[30] which was presumably due to a combination of Mongol invasions, famine and plague.[31]

At the founding of the Ming Dynasty in 1368, China’s population was reported to be close to 60 million; toward the end of the dynasty in 1644, it may have approached 150 million.[32] England’s population reached an estimated 5.6 million in 1650, up from an estimated 2.6 million in 1500.[33] New crops that were brought to Asia and Europe from the Americas by Spanish colonists in the 16th century are believed to have contributed to population growth.[34][35] Since their introduction by Portuguese traders in the 16th century,[36] maize and cassava have replaced traditional African crops as that continent’s most important staple food crops.[37]

Pran Nath estimates that, around 300 BC, the population of India was between 100 million and 140 million; Kingsley Davis agrees with this figure.[38] According to estimates made by the historian W. H. Moreland, the population of India in 1600 was around 100 million. Hence, from 300 BC to 1600, India’s population was more or less stable.[39]

The total population of the Americas in 1500 may have been between 50 and 100 million.[40] The pre-Columbian North American population probably numbered somewhere between 2 million and 18 million.[41] Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence.[42] Archaeological evidence indicates that the death of around 90% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases such as smallpox, measles and influenza.[43] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no such immunity.[44]
Modern era
Map showing urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006. Only 3% of the world’s population lived in cities in 1800; this proportion had risen to 47% by 2000, and reached 50.5% by 2010.[45] By 2050, the proportion may reach 70%.[46]

During the European Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically.[47] The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829.[48][49] Between 1700 and 1900, Europe’s population increased from about 100 million to over 400 million.[50] Altogether, the areas of European settlement comprised 36% of the world’s population in 1900.[51]

Population growth in the West became more rapid after the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improvements in medicine and sanitation.[52] As living conditions and health care improved during the 19th century, the United Kingdom’s population doubled every fifty years.[53] By 1801, the population of England had grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 it had reached 30.5 million; the population of the United Kingdom reached 60 million in 2006.[54] The United States saw its population grow from around 5.3 million in 1800 to 106 million in 1920, exceeding 307 million in 2010.[55]

The first half of the 20th century in Russia and the Soviet Union was marked by a succession of wars, famines and other disasters, each accompanied by large-scale population losses.[56] Stephen J. Lee estimates that, by the end of World War II in 1945, the Russian population was about 90 million fewer than it could have been otherwise.[57] In recent decades, Russia’s population has declined significantly – from 148 million in 1991 to 143 million in 2012[58] – but as of 2013 this decline appears to have halted.[59]

Many countries in the developing world have experienced rapid population growth over the past century. China’s population rose from approximately 430 million in 1850 to 580 million in 1953,[60] and now stands at over 1.3 billion. The population of the Indian subcontinent, which stood at about 125 million in 1750, reached 389 million in 1941;[61] today, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are collectively home to about 1.5 billion people.[62] The population of Java increased from about five million in 1815 to more than 130 million in the early 21st century.[63] Mexico’s population grew from 13.6 million in 1900 to about 112 million in 2010.[64][65] Between the 1920s and 2000s, Kenya’s population grew from 2.9 million to 37 million.[66]
Milestones by the billions
Main article: World population milestones
World population milestones (USCB estimates)[1] Population
(in billions) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Year 1804 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 2012 2027 2046
Years elapsed between milestones – 123 33 14 13 12 13 16 19

It is estimated that the world population reached one billion for the first time in 1804. It was another 123 years before it reached two billion in 1927, but it took only 33 years to reach three billion in 1960.[67] Thereafter, the global population reached four billion in 1974, five billion in 1987, six billion in 1999 and, according to the United States Census Bureau, seven billion in March 2012.[1] The United Nations, however, estimated that the world population reached seven billion in October 2011.[3][4][5]

According to current projections, the global population will reach eight billion by 2030, and will likely reach around nine billion by 2050. Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[68] Projected figures vary depending on underlying statistical assumptions and the variables used in projection calculations, especially the fertility variable. Long-range predictions to 2150 range from a population decline to 3.2 billion in the “low scenario”, to “high scenarios” of 24.8 billion.[68] One extreme scenario predicted a massive increase to 256 billion by 2150, assuming the global fertility rate remained at its 1995 level of 3.04 children per woman; however, by 2010 the global fertility rate had declined to 2.52.[12][69]

There is no estimation for the exact day or month the world’s population surpassed one or two billion. The days of three and four billion were not officially noted, but the International Database of the United States Census Bureau places them in July 1959 and April 1974. The United Nations did determine, and celebrate, the “Day of 5 Billion” on July 11, 1987, and the “Day of 6 Billion” on October 12, 1999. The “Day of 7 Billion” was declared by the Population Division of the United Nations to be October 31, 2011.[70]
Global demographics
Main article: Demographics of the world
Chart showing geographic distribution of the world population in 2005.

As of 2012, the global sex ratio is approximately 1.01 males to 1 female. The greater number of men is possibly due to the significant gender imbalances evident in the Indian and Chinese populations.[71][72] Approximately 26.3% of the global population is aged under 15, while 65.9% is aged 15–64 and 7.9% is aged 65 or over.[71] The global median age was 30.4 years in 2012, and is expected to rise to 37.9 years by 2050.[73]

The global average life expectancy is 67.07 years,[71] with women living an average of 69 years and men approximately 65 years.[71] In 2010, the global fertility rate was estimated at 2.52 children per woman.[69] In June 2012, British researchers calculated the total weight of Earth’s human population as 287 million tonnes, with the average person weighing 62 kilograms (137 lb).[74]

The nominal 2012 gross world product was estimated at US$71.83 trillion by the CIA, giving an annual global per capita figure of around US$10,000.[75] Around 1.29 billion people (18.4% of the world population) live in extreme poverty, subsisting on less than US$1.25 per day;[76] approximately 870 million people (12.25%) are undernourished.[77] 83% of the world’s over-15s are considered literate.[71] In June 2012, there were around 2.4 billion global Internet users, constituting 34.2% of the world population.[78]

The Han Chinese are the world’s largest single ethnic group, constituting over 19% of the global population in 2011.[79] The world’s most-spoken first languages are Mandarin Chinese (spoken by 12.44% of the world’s population), Spanish (4.85%), English (4.83%), Arabic (3.25%) and Hindustani (2.68%).[71] The world’s largest religion is Christianity, whose adherents account for 33.35% of the global population; Islam is the second-largest religion, accounting for 22.43%, and Hinduism the third, accounting for 13.78%.[71] In 2005, around 16% of the global population were reported to be non-religious.[80]
Largest populations by country
Further information: List of countries by population
A map of the world’s countries by total population, with darker shading indicating larger populations.
10 most populous countries Rank Country / Territory Population Date Approx. % of world
population Source
1 China[note 2] 1,364,020,000 April 22, 2014 19.1% [81]
2 India 1,243,130,000 April 22, 2014 17.4% [82]
3 United States 317,911,000 April 22, 2014 4.44% [83]
4 Indonesia 247,008,052 November 22, 2013 3.45% [84]
5 Brazil 201,032,714 July 1, 2013 2.81% [85]
6 Pakistan 186,243,000 April 22, 2014 2.6% [86]
7 Nigeria 173,615,000 July 1, 2013 2.43% [87]
8 Bangladesh 152,518,015 July 16, 2012 2.13% [88]
9 Russia 143,657,134 January 1, 2014 2.01% [89]
10 Japan 127,180,000 February 1, 2014 1.78% [90]

Approximately 4.154 billion people live in these ten countries, representing around 58% of the world’s population as of October 2013.
Most densely populated countries
Further information: List of countries and dependencies by population density

The tables below list the world’s most densely populated countries, both in absolute terms and in comparison to their total populations.
Population density (people per km2) map of the world in 1994. Red and pink areas denote regions of highest population density.
10 most densely populated countries (with population above 1 million) Rank Country/Region Population Area (km2) Density
(Pop. per km2)
1 Singapore 5,399,200 710 7605
2 Bahrain 1,234,571 750 1646
3 Bangladesh 149,772,364 147,570 1101
4 Taiwan 23,361,147 36,190 645
5 Mauritius 1,257,900 2,040 617
6 South Korea 50,219,669 99,538 505
7 Lebanon 4,822,000 10,452 461
8 Netherlands 16,848,208[91] 41,526 406
9 Rwanda 10,537,222 26,338 400
10 Haiti 10,413,211 27,065 385
Countries ranking highly in terms of both total population (more than 15 million people) and population density (more than 250 people per square kilometer): Country Population Area (km2) Density
(Pop. per km2) Notes
India 1,243,130,000 3,287,240 378 Growing country
Bangladesh 149,772,364 147,570 1101 Growing country
Japan 127,180,000 377,873 337 Declining in population[92]
Philippines 98,698,000 300,076 329 Growing country
Vietnam 90,388,000 331,689 268 Growing country
United Kingdom 63,705,000 243,610 262 Growing country
South Korea 50,219,669 99,538 505 Slowly growing country[93]
Taiwan 23,361,147 36,190 645 Declining in population[94][95]
Sri Lanka 20,328,597 65,610 309 Slowly growing country
Netherlands 16,848,208 41,526 406 Steady in population[96]
Fluctuation
Main article: Population growth
Estimates of population evolution in different continents between 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations. The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.

Population size fluctuates at differing rates in differing regions. Nonetheless, population growth is the long-standing trend on all inhabited continents, as well as in most individual states. According to the United Nations, population growth on Earth’s inhabited continents between 2000 to 2005 totalled:

227,771,000 in Asia;
92,293,000 in Africa;
38,052,000 in Latin America;
16,241,000 in Northern America;
3,264,000 in Europe;
1,955,000 in Oceania;
383,047,000 overall.

During the 20th century, the global population saw its greatest increase in known history, rising from about 1.6 billion in 1900 to over 6 billion in 2000. This increase was due to a number of factors, including the lessening of the mortality rate in many countries by improved sanitation and medical advances, and a massive increase in agricultural productivity attributed to the Green Revolution.[97][98][99]

In 2000, the United Nations estimated that the world’s population was growing at an annual rate of 1.14% (equivalent to around 75 million people),[100] down from a peak of 88 million per year in 1989. By 2000, there were approximately ten times as many people on Earth as there had been in 1700. According to data from the CIA’s 2005–2006 World Factbooks, the world population increased by an average of 203,800 people every day in the mid-2000s.[citation needed] The World Factbook increased this estimate to 211,090 people every day in 2007, and again to 220,980 people every day in 2009.
A world map showing global variations in fertility rate per woman, according to the CIA World Factbook’s 2013 data.
7–8 children
6–7 children

5–6 children
4–5 children

3–4 children
2–3 children

1–2 children
0–1 children

Globally, the population growth rate has been steadily declining from its peak of 2.19% in 1963, but growth remains high in Latin America, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa.[101]

In some countries, there is negative population growth (i.e. a net decrease in population over time), especially in Europe – this is mainly due to low fertility rates. During the 2010s, Japan and some countries in Europe began to encounter negative population growth, due to sub-replacement fertility rates.[92]

In 2006, the United Nations stated that the rate of population growth was visibly diminishing due to the ongoing global demographic transition. If this trend continues, the rate of growth may diminish to zero by 2050, concurrent with a world population plateau of 9.2 billion.[102] However, this is only one of many estimates published by the UN; in 2009, UN population projections for 2050 ranged between around 8 billion and 10.5 billion.[103] An alternative scenario is given by Jorgen Randers, who argues that traditional projections insufficiently take into account the downward impact of global urbanization on fertility. Randers’ “most likely scenario” reveals a peak in the world population in the early 2040s at about 8.1 billion people, followed by decline.[104]

Estimated world population figures, 10,000 BC–2000 AD.

Estimated world population figures, 10,000 BC–2000 AD (in log y scale).

World population figures, 1950–2000.

Estimated global growth rates, 1950–2050.

Estimated and projected populations of the world and its continents (except Antarctica) from 1950 to 2100. The shaded regions correspond to the range of projections by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

Projections
Main articles: World population estimates and Projections of population growth

Long-term global population growth is difficult to predict. The United Nations and the US Census Bureau both give different estimates – according to the latter, the world population reached seven billion in March 2012,[105] while the UN asserted that this occurred in late 2011.[106] The UN has issued multiple projections of future world population, based on different assumptions. From 2000 to 2005, the UN consistently revised these projections downward, until the 2006 revision, issued on March 14, 2007, revised the 2050 mid-range estimate upwards by 273 million.

Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or below replacement levels) and developing countries (where birth rates typically remain high). Different ethnicities also display varying birth rates. Death rates can change rapidly due to disease epidemics, wars and other mass catastrophes, or advances in medicine.
UN (medium variant – 2012 revision) and US Census Bureau (June 2012) estimates[107][108] Year UN est.
(millions) Difference USCB est.
(millions) Difference
2005 6,514 – 6,474 –
2010 6,916 402 6,864 390
2015 7,324 408 7,250 386
2020 7,717 393 7,628 378
2025 8,083 366 7,984 356
2030 8,425 342 8,315 331
2035 8,743 318 8,619 304
2040 9,039 296 8,899 280
2045 9,308 269 9,154 255
2050 9,551 243 9,383 229
UN 2012 estimates and medium variant projections (in millions)[107] Year World Asia Africa Europe Latin America/Caribbean Northern America Oceania
2010 6,916 4,165 (60.2%) 1,031 (14.9%) 740 (10.7%) 596 (8.6%) 347 (5.0%) 37 (0.5%)
2015 7,324 4,385 (59.9%) 1,166 (15.9%) 743 (10.1%) 630 (8.6%) 361 (4.9%) 39 (0.5%)
2020 7,717 4,582 (59.4%) 1,312 (17.0%) 744 (9.6%) 662 (8.6%) 376 (4.9%) 42 (0.5%)
2025 8,083 4,749 (58.8%) 1,468 (18.2%) 741 (10.1%) 691 (9.2%) 390 (4.8%) 45 (0.6%)
2030 8,425 4,887 (58.0%) 1,634 (19.4%) 736 (8.7%) 717 (8.5%) 403 (4.8%) 47 (0.6%)
2035 8,743 4,997 (57.2%) 1,812 (20.7%) 730 (8.3%) 739 (8.5%) 415 (4.8%) 50 (0.6%)
2040 9,039 5,080 (56.2%) 1,999 (22.1%) 724 (8.0%) 757 (8.4%) 426 (4.8%) 52 (0.6%)
2045 9,308 5,136 (55.2%) 2,194 (23.6%) 717 (7.7%) 771 (8.3%) 436 (4.7%) 55 (0.6%)
2050 9,551 5,164 (54.1%) 2,393 (25.1%) 709 (7.4%) 782 (8.2%) 446 (4.7%) 57 (0.6%)
2055 9,766 5,168 (52.9%) 2,595 (26.6%) 700 (7.2%) 788 (8.1%) 456 (4.7%) 59 (0.6%)
2060 9,957 5,152 (51.7%) 2,797 (28.1%) 691 (6.9%) 791 (7.9%) 465 (4.7%) 61 (0.6%)
2065 10,127 5,120 (50.6%) 2,998 (29.6%) 681 (6.7%) 791 (7.8%) 474 (4.7%) 63 (0.6%)
2070 10,277 5,075 (49.4%) 3,195 (31.1%) 673 (6.5%) 788 (7.6%) 482 (4.7%) 64 (0.6%)
2075 10,409 5,019 (48.2%) 3,387 (32.5%) 665 (6.4%) 783 (7.5%) 490 (4.7%) 66 (0.6%)
2080 10,524 4,957 (47.1%) 3,570 (33.9%) 659 (6.3%) 776 (7.4%) 496 (4.7%) 67 (0.6%)
2085 10,626 4,894 (46.1%) 3,742 (35.2%) 653 (6.1%) 767 (7.2%) 502 (4.7%) 68 (0.6%)
2090 10,717 4,833 (45.1%) 3,903 (36.4%) 649 (6.1%) 757 (7.1%) 506 (4.7%) 69 (0.6%)
2095 10,794 4,773 (44.2%) 4,051 (37.6%) 644 (6.0%) 747 (6.9%) 510 (4.7%) 69 (0.6%)
2100 10,854 4,712 (43.4%) 4,185 (38.6%) 639 (5.9%) 736 (6.8%) 513 (4.7%) 70 (0.6%)
Population growth by region

The table below shows historical and predicted regional population figures in millions.[106][109][110] The availability of historical population figures varies by region.
World historical and predicted populations (in millions)[111][112] Region 1500 1600 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999 2008 2010 2012 2050 2150
World 458 580 682 791 978 1,262 1,650 2,521 5,978 6,707 6,896 7,052 8,909 9,746
Africa 86 114 106 106 107 111 133 221 767 973 1,022 1,052 1,766 2,308
Asia 243 339 436 502 635 809 947 1,402 3,634 4,054 4,164 4,250 5,268 5,561
Europe 84 111 125 163 203 276 408 547 729 732 738 740 628 517
Latin America and the Caribbean[Note 1] 39 10 10 16 24 38 74 167 511 577 590 603 809 912
Northern America[Note 1] 3 3 2 2 7 26 82 172 307 337 345 351 392 398
Oceania 3 3 3 2 2 2 6 13 30 34 37 38 46 51
World historical and predicted populations by percentage distribution[111][112] Region 1500 1600 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 1999 2008 2010 2012 2050 2150
World 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Africa 18.8 19.7 15.5 13.4 10.9 8.8 8.1 8.8 12.8 14.5 14.8 15.2 19.8 23.7
Asia 53.1 58.4 63.9 63.5 64.9 64.1 57.4 55.6 60.8 60.4 60.4 60.3 59.1 57.1
Europe 18.3 19.1 18.3 20.6 20.8 21.9 24.7 21.7 12.2 10.9 10.7 10.5 7.0 5.3
Latin America and the Caribbean[Note 1] 8.5 1.7 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.5 6.6 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.6 9.1 9.4
Northern America[Note 1] 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.7 2.1 5.0 6.8 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 4.4 4.1
Oceania 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

Note: in the table below, the figures for North America only refer to post-European contact settlers, and not native populations from before European settlement.
Estimated world and regional populations at various dates (in millions) Year World Africa Asia Europe Latin America[Note 1] Northern America Oceania Notes
70,000 BC < 0.015 [113]
10,000 BC 1
9000 BC 3
8000 BC 5 [114]
7000 BC 7
6000 BC 10
5000 BC 15
4000 BC 20
3000 BC 25
2000 BC 35
1000 BC 50 [114]
500 BC 100 [114]
AD 1 200 [115]
1000 310
1750 791 106 502 163 16 2 2
1800 978 107 635 203 24 7 2
1850 1,262 111 809 276 38 26 2
1900 1,650 133 947 408 74 82 6
1950 2,519 221 1,398 547 167 172 12.8
1955 2,756 247 1,542 575 191 187 14.3
1960 2,982 277 1,674 601 209 204 15.9
1965 3,335 314 1,899 634 250 219 17.6
1970 3,692 357 2,143 656 285 232 19.4
1975 4,068 408 2,397 675 322 243 21.5
1980 4,435 470 2,632 692 361 256 22.8
1985 4,831 542 2,887 706 401 269 24.7
1990 5,263 622 3,168 721 441 283 26.7
1995 5,674 707 3,430 727 481 299 28.9
2000 6,070 796 3,680 728 520 316 31.0
2005 6,454 888 3,917 725 558 332 32.9
2010 6,972 1,022 4,252 732 580 351 35.6 [citation needed]

Northern America comprises the northern-most countries and territories of North America: Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. Latin America comprises Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and South America.

Mathematical approximations

In 1975, Sebastian von Hoerner proposed a formula for population growth which represented hyperbolic growth with an infinite population in 2025.[117] The hyperbolic growth of the world population observed until the 1970s was later correlated to a non-linear second order positive feedback between demographic growth and technological development. This feedback can be described as follows: technological advance → increase in the carrying capacity of land for people → demographic growth → more people → more potential inventors → acceleration of technological advance → accelerating growth of the carrying capacity → faster population growth → accelerating growth of the number of potential inventors → faster technological advance → hence, the faster growth of the Earth's carrying capacity for people, and so on.[118] The transition from hyperbolic growth to slower rates of growth is related to the demographic transition.

According to Sergei Kapitsa,[119] the world population grew between 67,000 BC and 1965 according to the following formula:

N = \frac{C}{\tau} \arccot \frac{T_0-T}{\tau}

where

N is current population
T is the current year
C = (1.86±0.01)·1011
T0 = 2007±1
\tau = 42±1

Years for world population to double

Using linear interpolation and extrapolation of UNDESA population estimates, the world population has doubled, or will double, in the following years (with two different starting points). Note how, during the 2nd millennium, each doubling took roughly half as long as the previous doubling, fitting the hyperbolic growth model mentioned above. However, after 2025 it is unlikely that there will be another doubling of the global population in the 21st century.[120]
Historic chart showing the periods of time the world population has taken to double, from 1700 to 2000.
Starting at 500 million Population
(in billions) 0.5 1 2 4 8
Year 1500 1804 1927 1974 2025
Years elapsed 304 123 47 51
Starting at 375 million Population
(in billions) 0.375 0.75 1.5 3 6
Year 1171 1715 1881 1960 1999
Years elapsed 544 166 79 39
Overpopulation
Main article: Human overpopulation
Predictions of scarcity
Greater Los Angeles lies on a coastal desert that is able to support at most 1 million people on its own water; as of 2014, it has a population of over 18 million.

In his 1798 work An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society with remarks on the speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and other writers; the British scholar Thomas Malthus incorrectly predicted that continued population growth would exhaust the global food supply by the mid-19th century. The essay was written to refute what Malthus called, the unattainable Utopian ideas of William Godwin and Marquis de Condorcet; presented in Political Justice and The Future Progress of the Human Mind. In 1968, Paul R. Ehrlich reprised this argument in The Population Bomb, predicting that mass global famine would occur in the 1970s and 1980s.[121] The predictions of Ehrlich and other neo-Malthusians were vigorously challenged by a number of economists, notably Julian Lincoln Simon, and advances in agriculture, collectively known as the Green Revolution, forestalled any potential global famine in the late 20th century. Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the world, grain production increased by over 250%.[122] The world population has grown by over four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution, but food production has so far kept pace with population growth. Most scholars believe that, without the Revolution, there would be greater levels of famine and malnutrition than the UN presently documents.[123] However, neo-Malthusians point out that the energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels, in the form of natural gas-derived fertilizers, oil-derived pesticides, and hydrocarbon-fueled irrigation, and that many crops have become so genetically uniform that a crop failure could potentially have global repercussions.[124]
Graph of the global human population from 10,000 BC to 2000 AD, from the US Census Bureau. The graph shows the extremely rapid growth in the world population that has taken place since the 18th century.

In May 2008, the price of grain was pushed up severely by the increased cultivation of biofuels, the increase of world oil prices to over $140 per barrel ($880/m3),[125] global population growth,[126] the effects of climate change,[127] the loss of agricultural land to residential and industrial development,[128][129] and growing consumer demand in the population centres of China and India.[130][131] Food riots subsequently occurred in some countries.[132][133] However, oil prices then fell sharply, and remained below $100/barrel until around 2010. Resource demands are expected to ease as population growth declines, but it is unclear whether mass food wastage and rising living standards in developing countries will once again create resource shortages.[134][135]

David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, estimates that the sustainable agricultural carrying capacity for the United States is about 200 million people; its population as of 2013 is over 310 million.[136] In 2009, the UK government's chief scientific advisor, Professor John Beddington, warned that growing populations, falling energy reserves and food shortages would create a "perfect storm" by 2030. Beddington claimed that food reserves were at a fifty-year low, and that the world would require 50% more energy, food and water by 2030.[137][138] According to a 2009 report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the world will have to produce 70% more food by 2050 to feed a projected extra 2.3 billion people.[139]

The observed figures for 2007 showed an actual increase in absolute numbers of undernourished people in the world, with 923 million undernourished in 2007, versus 832 million in 1995.[140] The 2009 FAO estimates showed an even more dramatic increase, to 1.02 billion.[141]
Environmental impacts
Illegal slash-and-burn agriculture in Madagascar, 2010.

A number of scientists have argued that the current global population expansion and accompanying increase in resource consumption threatens the world's ecosystem, as well as straining humanity's ability to feed itself.[142][143] The InterAcademy Panel Statement on Population Growth, which was ratified by 58 member national academies in 1994, called the growth in human numbers "unprecedented", and stated that many environmental problems, such as rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, global warming, and pollution, were aggravated by the population expansion.[144] Indeed, some analysts claim that overpopulation's most serious impact is its effect on the environment.[15] At the time of the 1994 IAP statement, the world population stood at 5.5 billion, and lower-bound scenarios predicted a peak of 7.8 billion by 2050, a number that current estimates state will be reached in the late 2020s.
Population control
Main article: Human population control
India is anticipated to overtake China as the world's most populous country by the mid-21st century.

Human population control is the practice of intervening to alter the rate of population growth. Historically, human population control has been implemented by limiting a region's birth rate, by voluntary contraception or by government mandate. It has been undertaken as a response to factors including high or increasing levels of poverty, environmental concerns, and religious reasons. The use of abortion in some population control strategies has caused controversy,[145] with religious organizations such as the Roman Catholic Church explicitly opposing any intervention in the human reproductive process.[146]

The University of Nebraska publication Green Illusions argues that population control to alleviate environmental pressures need not be coercive. It states that "Women who are educated, economically engaged, and in control of their own bodies can enjoy the freedom of bearing children at their own pace, which happens to be a rate that is appropriate for the aggregate ecological endowment of our planet."[147] The book Fatal Misconception by Matthew Connelly similarly points to the importance of supporting the rights of women in bringing population levels down over time.[148]
Overpopulation as a myth

Some scientists, religious commentators and public policy analysts have criticised predictions of overpopulation and attendant resource scarcity, with some describing overpopulation as a "myth".[149] They argue that advances in agricultural, medical and industrial technology have allowed global economic productivity to keep pace with rising populations despite Malthusian predictions to the contrary, and point out that family sizes are naturally declining worldwide due to higher living standards and better economic opportunities for women.[150][151][152] Some identify individual overconsumption as a greater threat to world resources than population growth.[152]
Number of humans who have ever lived
Further information: Paleodemography

An estimate of the total number of humans who have ever lived was prepared by Carl Haub of the nonprofit Population Reference Bureau in 1995, and was subsequently updated in 2002 and 2011; the 2011 figure was approximately 107 billion.[153][154][155] Haub characterized this figure as an estimate that required "selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period".[154] Various estimates published in the first decade of the 21st century give figures ranging from approximately 100 billion to 115 billion.
Estimation methodologies

An accurate estimate of the number of humans who have ever lived is difficult to produce for numerous reasons. Firstly, the set of specific characteristics that define a "human" is a matter of definition, and it is open to debate which members of early Homo sapiens and earlier or related species of Homo to include in the estimate (see also Sorites paradox). Even if the scientific community reached a broad consensus regarding which characteristics distinguished human beings, it would be nearly impossible to pinpoint the time of their first appearance to even the nearest millennium, due to the scarcity of fossil evidence. However, the very small size of the world population in prehistoric times (as compared to its current size) makes this uncertainty of limited importance.

More importantly, robust population data only exist for the last two or three centuries. Until the late 18th century, few governments had ever performed an accurate census. In many early attempts, such as in Ancient Egypt and the Persian Empire, the focus was on counting merely a subset of the population for purposes of taxation or military service.[156] Thus, there is a significant margin of error when estimating ancient global populations.

Another critical factor for such an estimate is life expectancy, which depends significantly on infant mortality rates; these figures are very difficult to estimate for ancient times. Haub's numbers suggest that around 40% of those who have ever lived did not survive beyond their first birthday.[154] Haub also stated that "life expectancy at birth probably averaged only about ten years for most of human history".[154]

Tula

Mga Tulang Tagalog
(Tulang Tagalog)

Mga Tagalog na tula,
Mga tulang Pilipino,
Huwag kayong mawawala
Kayo’y kailangan dito.

Tangkilikin kayo muli
Ng bayang pinagmulan nyo.
‘Wag kayong magpapahuli.
Dumami’t lumago kayo.

Muli kayong magsalita
Ng may husay at talino.
‘Pakita nyo na maganda
Ang utak ng Pilipino.

O mga tulang Tagalog
Gising at ‘wag nang matulog!

Ang tulang ito ay napapahiwatig na dapat tangkilikin ang wikang atin.Kailangan basahin ang mga tulang tagalog na sa ating bansa nagmula.

Oalay Manoc con Taraz
(Tulang Pangasinan)

Ako ay may Taraz
Munting ibon ng minamahal
Kapag ako’y may kausap
Sa harap ko’y humaharang

Taraz,na mahal ko,Taraz
Ano’t ika’y nagagalit?
Hindi kita gigiliwin
Kung di ka iniibig.

Ito’y naglalahad ng lalaking may pagtingin o pagsuyo sa babae kung saan hindi siya nagpapahiwatig ng kanyang nararamdaman.

Nagdurusa
(Tulang Bicol)

Nagdurusa ang puso ko
Habag mo ang sambit ko Di ko man lang inakala
Ako ay ‘yong iiwanan
Dito sa mundong ibabaw

Kaawa-awa kong buhay
Ikaw kaya ay nasaan Sa buhay ko ay karamay,
Walang iba kundi ikaw
Sa puso ko’y mahalaga
Sa puso kong nagdurusa.

Ang tulang ito ay nagpapahayag sa matinding naramdaman ng tao sa kanyang puso kung saan siya’y naghihinagpis sa pagkawala ng kanyang mahal sa buhay.

Nanay
(Tulang Katagalugan)

Nanay, mama, mommy
Pag-aaruga’t pagmamahal
Sa ami’y ipinaranas
Iyon ang aking ina
At wala ng iba

Dakila ka o ama, wala kang katulad
Sa anomang pagsubok, saan ka man mapadpad
Bigyan kami ng ligaya, ito ang iyong agap
Itaguyod kami ay siyang tangi mong pangarap.
Pag-ibig ko sa ‘yo buo’t anong wagas!

Nagpapahiwatig sa pagmamahal ng isang ina.

Naulilang Puso By:Ariel C. Barros
(Tulang Cebuano)

Puso’y naulila at nagdurusa
Sa tuwing ika’y nawala
Laging kitang hinanap-hanap
Maghapon at magdamag.

Sa piling mo noo’y
Ako’y laging masigla
Hinahangad kong ika’y mapasaya
Paano na pag-ibig ko?
Ika’y naglaho na.

Sa naulilang puso
Ako’y naghihinagpis
Sa dusang nakamtan
Umiiyak na lamang.

Sabi n’ya nang kami’y nagkita,
“Paalam mahal ko,
Ako’y may iba na”.

Kaysakit isipin,
Siya’y nawala.
Sumpaan namin bigla,
na lamang nagiba.
Ako’y nag-iisa at puso’y naulila.

Ang tulang ito ay nagpapahayag ng kabiguan sa pag-ibig sa isang tao.Ito’y naglalahad sa pangyayaring naganap noong nagsama pa sila ng kanyang minamahal.

ASTER 10

Regional Teacher Education Student’s Congress

Once again the PAFTE/ASTER 10 had a workshop seminar last March 07,2014 at Capitol University,Cagayan de Oro City.At 9 o’clock in the morning the part 1 of the program started.
This year theme is:
” Glocalization of Student’s Teaching Curriculum ,Licensure Examination for Teachers 2014 and Olympics 2014″.

The seminar focus on the outcomes application of the teachers to take a Board Exam this year.In the part 1 of a seminar, Amor Quidet discussed about the PRC(Philippine Regulations Commission) and LET 2014, while the other speaker contributed her knowledge about the OBE(Outcome Base Education).
One of the most excited moments was when the top 1 and top 6 of LET 2013 spoke on stage with an inspirational message.

The part 2 of the activities was the ballgames proper.Different colleges and universities joined the event.

Below are the list of winners of different competition:

Volleyball(men)
Champion-Misamis Occidental Cluster
First runner-up-Misamis Oriental Cluster
Second runner -up-Illigan Cluster

Volleybal(women)
Champion-Illigan Cluster
First runner-up-Misamis Oriental Cluster
Second runner-up-Cagayan de Oro Cluster

Badminton single(men)
Champion-Cagayan de Oro Cluster
First runner-up-Misamis Oriental Cluster

Badminton single(women)
Champion-Misamis Oriental Cluster
First runner-up-Cagayan de Oro Cluster
Second runner-up- Bukidnon Cluster

Badminton double(men)
winner-Misamis Oriental

Badminton double(women)
Champion-Misamis Oriental Cluster
First runner-up-Bukidnoon Cluster

Teaching Demonstration
Champion-Misamis Occidental Cluster
First runner-up-Cagayan de Oro Cluster
Second runner-up- Camiguin Cluster

Basketball(men)
Champion-Misamis Occidental Cluster
First runner-up-Misamis Oriental Cluster
Second runner-up-Bukidnoon Cluster

Basketball(women)
Champion-Bukidnoon Cluster
First runner-up- Cagayan de Oro Cluster

Jingle Contest
Winner- Gov. Alfonso G. Tan College

Kalayaan

Kalayaan
ni: Marcelo H. del Pilar

I.Sanligan
Mithi I-Sa Panitikan at Wikang Filipino

II.Buod
Ang kalayaan ay dili iba kundi ang kapangyarihang sumuno o sumuway sa sariling kalooban:ang tinatawag nating malaya ay yaong panginoon ng kanilang kalooban.
Tunay na dahil sa kalayaan ay nagagawa ang masama at nangyayaring pabayaan ang magaling.Datapwa,sukat pagwariing ito ang pinagbuhatan ng matuwid o masama niyang gawa.
Ang hayop ay walang kalayaan gaya ng kalayaan ng tao;ang hayop ay hindi panginoon ng kanyang sarili;ang hayop na sumila sa kapwa hayop ay alipin ng kanyang gutom,ng kanyang galit,ng sariling pitang hindi mapaglabanan;kaya hindi naman nananagot sa kanyang ginawa,hindi nagkakamit ng puri,hindi nagkakasala.
Ang tao’y dili gayon. Sa balang gawin sa ibabaw ng lupa,mabuti o masama ay taling kasunod ang karapatan o kasalanan; ang gawang mabuti ay ikinararapat ng Diyos at sa sariling konsiyensya; ang gawang masama ay ikinasasawi,at dahil dito’y bumubukal baga sa ating puso ang isang kahihiyan,isang pighating sumisisi sa sarili,palibhasa’y nasa kamay natin ang kalayaang sukat ikailag sa ikasasawi.
Nilikha ng Diyos ang tao,sinangkapan ang isip at loob at kalangkap ng buhay na ipinagkaloob sa kanya ang ganap na kalayaan.
Alinsunod dito kung matuwid ang gamitin at pagyamanin ang lahat ng ipinagkaloob ng Diyos,kung pananagutan natin sa Maykapal ang pagpapabaya sa mga biyayang handog ng kanyang pagmamahal,kung dapat nating pagyamanin ang sariling buhay,liwanagin ang sariling isip at loob,ay katwiran din namang igalang natin ang kalayaang sangkap ng ating pagkatao,dapat nating gamitin at ipagmalasakit at huwag pababayaang apihin ng iba ang sariling kalayaan.
Ang lahat ng bayan sa ibabaw ng lupa ay nagtatag ng mga kautusang dapat alinsunurin ng mamamayan at mga pinuno namang tagapag-alaga ng ikatutupad ng mga kautusan.

III. Kahulugan ng Pamagat
Ang kalayaan ay ang karapatan, kakayahan o abilidad, ng sariling determinayson sa pagpapahiwatig ng isang hangarin.

Ang kalayaan ay pagiging malaya sa lahat ng mga ginagawa mo. Ito din ay malaya sa mga karapatang pantao na mahalaga sa bawat mamayan.
Ang kalayaan ay isang responsibilidad na kailangang bigyang halaga ng bawat isa at kailangang pangalagaan.
Ang kalayaan ay kailangang yakapin ng may paninindigan at pagtitiwala at higit sa lahat ang hindi paggawa ng kung ano ang nais mo.
Ang Kalayaan ay isang napakahalagang karapatan ng bawa’t tao, kung mayroon ka nito, walang gumagapos o pumipigil sa anumang iyong ninanais at nilalayon sa buhay. Mayroon kang laya na gampanan ang mga bagay na magpapaunlad at magpapaligaya sa iyo. Malaya kang lumikha, humimok, magtatag, at magsagawa ng mga makabuluhang bagay sa ikakaunlad ng iyong sarili, mga kasamahan, at maging ang iyong pamayanan. Wala kang magiging anuman na agam-agam o inaala-ala, maging maliit o malaki man, sa paggawa ng mga ito. Mapayapa, mahusay, at maligaya ka sa pagtupad ng mga tungkulin bilang masunuring mamamayan.

Ang pagiging malaya ay isang katangian ng pagiging makapangyarihan, may sariling kapasiyahan nang walang anumang pinapangambahan, hindi nakasandig, umaasa o nakatali sa iba, matatag at taas noong ipinaglalaban ang pansariling kapakanan at kagalingan para sa lahat. Walang nangingibabaw o nakapangyayari sa iyong mga karapatang pantao. Hindi ka naghihinala, nangangamba, o maging natatakot man sa iyong kapwa sa sariling lipunang ginagalawan, at higit na nag-aalala sa uri ng iyong pamahalaan.

Sa kabubuang lahat, ang wastong katawagan nito ay KASARINLAN. Nagsasarili, may natatanging kapasiyahan, paninindigan, taas noong humaharap sa iba nang walang nagsusulsol o sinusunod, at walang bahid ng anumang pag-aalinlangan.

IV. Pagpapahalaga Ayon sa Nilalaman
1. Kalagayang Sosyal at Pangkabuhayan
kung mababasa mo ang kathang “Kalayaan” malalaman mo kung gaano kahalaga ang taong may kalayaan.Kalayaang sa lahat ng ginagawa.Mapapaunlad natin ang tunay na kalayaan kong gagawa tayo ng mabubuti sa ating kapwa bilang asal sa ating maging malayang tao sa lipunan.
Tayo man ay mayaman o mahirap may karapatan tayong gumawa ng ating gustong gawin dahil malaya ang bawat isa sa atin.
2.Kulturang Pilipino
Ipinagkaloob ng Diyos sa atin ang kalayaan, dapat gampanan natin ito sa mga mabubuting paraan.
3.Pilosopiyang Pilipino
“Ibon mang may layang lumipad kulungin mo at umiiyak.Bayan pa kaya’y sakdal dilag ang ‘di magnasang makaalpas”
Ang pilosopiyang ito ay nagpapahayag sa tunay na kalagayan ng ating mga kalahi noon sa panahon ng mga mananakop.Isinulat ang sanaysay na “kalayaan” upang gumising o mapukaw sa katotohanan ang mga Pilipino na sa panahon ng mga kastila ay inaalipin ang mga ito.
4.Simbolismong Pilipino
” Kalayaan” ay sumisimbolo sa karapatan ng bawat sa tao sa buong mundo.Ang maging malaya sa lahat na gustong o nais gawin
ay siyang nagpapairal ng kalayaan sa lipunan.

V. Teorya/Pananalig Pampanitikan Napapaloob sa sa Akda

1.Simbolismo- inilalarawan ang kalayaan sa pamamagitan ng ibon at bayan . Tulad sa akda, inilarawan dito ang tunay na kalayaan sa buhay ng tao.

VI.Implikasyon

1. Kalagayang Panlipunan/Pambansa
Kung marami ang makababasa nito ay mapapahalagahan nila ang tunay na kalayaan na bigay ng Poong Maykapal.Maipapakita nila ang tamang paraan bilang isang malayang tao.
2.Kalagayang Pangkabuhayan
Ito’y nakakatulong sa tao ng mamuhay ng payapa dahil ang taong may kalayaan ay siyang gumagawa ng tama alang-alang sa sarili pati narin sa ikabubuti ng isang bayan.
3.Kalagayang Pansarili
Naisip ko sa aking isipan na dapat tayong magpakatotoo bilang isang tao at huwag nating ilapit ang ating sarili sa masasama. Dapat gumawa tayo ng kanais-nais at nakatutulong sa bayan upang matuklasan natin ang toto
ong kalayaan.

YEN lopez

Laguindingan
Lungsod sa Laguindingan
Bayan ng Laguindingan

Nickname(s): Ang Gateway sa Hilagang Mindanao
ng bayan ng Laguindingan.
Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental is located in Pilipinas
Laguindingan
Lokasyon sa Pilipinas.
Coordinates: 8°35′N 124°27′EMga coordinate: 8°35′N 124°27′E
Bansa Flag of the Philippines Pilipinas
Pulo Mindanao
Rehiyon Hilagang Mindanao (Rehiyong X)
Lalawigan Misamis Oriental
Mga Barangay 11
Naitatag 1963
Pamahalaan
• Alkalde Oliver L. Ubaub
• Bise Alkade Diosdado T. Obsioma
• Mun. Council
Councilors[ipakita]
Laki
• Kabuuan 44.23 km2 (17.08 sq mi)
Populasyon (2007[1])
• Kabuuan 19,952
• Mga Wika Cebuano, Filipino (Tagalog), Ingles
Sona ng oras PST (UTC+8)
ZIP Code 9019
Websayt http://www.laguindinganmisor.gov.ph

Ang Bayan ng Laguindingan ay isang ika-4 na klaseng bayan sa lalawigan ng Misamis Oriental, Pilipinas. Ayon sa senso noong 2000, ito ay may populasyon na 18,451 katao sa 3,968 na kabahayan.
Mga Barangay

Ang bayan ng Laguindingan ay nahahati sa 11 mga barangay.

Aromahon
Gasi
Kibaghot
Lapad
Liberty
Mauswagon
Moog
Poblacion
Sambulawan
Sinai
Tubajon

Mga Opisyales ng Lungsod

MAYOR of MISAMIS ORIENTAL – LAGUINDINGAN
UBAUB, BONG

VICE-MAYOR of MISAMIS ORIENTAL – LAGUINDINGAN
OBSIOMA, DIOSDADO

MISAMIS ORIENTAL – LAGUINDINGAN – Sangguniang Bayan Members

DALONDONAN, ARTEMIO
RABUYA, WILLIE
ELLARINA, DONSALS
OGUIS, LOLOY
CATIIL, TING
NALDO, CAMILO
BAHIAN, LITO
SABURAO, KAPITAN

Sukat at Lawak ng Lugar

Laki
• Kabuuan 44.23 km2 (17.08 sq mi)

Mga Bantog na Tanawin

Highlights

Binitinan Islet ay matatagpuan sa Mauswagon.Ito ay may maraming bato na may lupa at pinalibutan ng dagat.
Tagbabanga Falls isang lugar na makikita sa Sinai na lalakarin pa ito ng malayo galing sa sentro ng Laguindingan.
Hill Top (Buntod) ay isang lugar sa pinakatandang simbahan ng Iglesia Pilipina Independente Church bago pa inilipat sa ibang lugar.Hindi ito makikita tuwing Semana Santa.
My Relaxing Terrace ay matatagpuan sa Tubajon.Ito isang lugar kung saan maraming mangrove na kahoy at ang buhangin at gaya sa buhangin ng Boracay.
Berhen Milagrosa isang pook na makikita sa Moog kung saan milagroso ang nasabing lugar.Ito ay malapit sa kilid ng dagat at maraming taong pumunta tuwing liggo.Kadalasan tanawin ng mga dayo.
Cueva Con Agua ay matatagpuan sa Mauswagon malapit sa Barangay Hall, Kinikilalang lugar ng mga Encanto. Ang lugar ay inaalagaan ng bayan dahil pinaniniwalaan na isang Milagrosong lugar.
Tubajon Mang Groves
Old Spanish Tower

Mga Kabuhayan ng mga Tao sa Lugar

Mangingisda
Pagsasaka
Professional(guro,doktor,nars at iba pa)
Pangangalakal
Drayber(habal-habal,bus,tricycle at iba pa)

St. Peter’s College
Balingasag,Misamis Oriental

Laguindingan,Misamis Oriental
Philippines

Ipinasa nina:
Pabayo,Wenmark
Barros,Ariel

Mga Wika na Ginagamit ng mga Tao

1.Cebuano
2.Deuth
3.Espanyol
4.Ilokano
5.Bahasa Indonisia
6.Italiano
7.Kapangpangan
8.Nederlands
9.Svenska
10.Tagalog
11.Tieng Viet
12.Winaray
13.Ingles

Mga Larawan ng Lugar

Kapistahan at Patron

Ang kapistahan ng lugar ay ipinagdiwang tuwing Hulyo 12.

Ito ang mga listahan ng mga santo na gaganapin ang kanilang kapistahan tuwing Hulyo 12.

St. Jason
St. John Gaulbert, Abbot
St. Agnes De
Bl. Andrew Oexner of Riun
St. Ansbald
St. Viventiolus
St. Veronica
Bl. David Gonson
St Epiphania
St. John Jones
St. John the Iberian
Bl. John Naisen
Bl. John Tanaka
St. John Wall
St. Leo of Lucca
Bl. Louis Naisen
St. Marciana
St. Nabor and Felix
Bl. Matthias Araki
St. Menulphus
Bl. Monica Naisen
St. Paternian
Bl. Peter Araki Kobjoje
St. Paulinus of Antioch
St. Peter Khanh

Paraan ng Pagdiriwang

Ito ang mga Aktividades ng Bayan Tuwing Kapistahan

HUDYAKA FESTIVAL
July 12 | Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental
Isang “Street dancing competition” na nagsisimbolo kung saan galing ang Laguindingan ,Misamis Oriental.Binabalikan ang kasaysayan sa bayan.

Tobacco Festival ay isa sa mga pinagdiwang ng bayan dahil sagana ang lugar sa Tabako.Upang maging sikat ang kanilang tanim na tabako sila’y naglunsad ng isang Festival .

Charter Day ay ipinagdiriwang tuwing Hulyo 12.Ito ay nagsimula noong Hulyo 12,1963.Tinawag na araw ng Laguindingan ang pagdiriwang na ito.
A Holy-Week Trek March or April (Movable) Ang lahat ng mga naniniwala kay Kristo ay nagsiganap sa celebrasyon na ito tuwing Semana Santa at naprosesyon sila patungong Hill Top9Buntod)
Miss Teen Laguindingan (July 12) ay isang paligsahan ng mga kababaihan sa Bayan para sa tagisan ng talino at ganda.

mpong Sela ni Epifanio G. Matute

I.
A. Pamagat ng Katha

Impong Sela
Isinulat ni: Epifanio Gar Matute

B.Sanggunian o Aklat na Pinagkukunan

Mithi I- Sa Panitikan at sa Wikang Filipino
Mga Akda ng Aklat:
Maria Celeste Del Rosario
Aida Marquez Guimarie
Lilibeth Dayrit Monton
Pahina 198-204

II.
Buod

Noon ay buong kataimtimang minalas ni Impong Sela ang kanyang lalabing-animing taong apong lalaki sa pagkakahigang walang katinag-tinag. Sa ilalim ng maputing kumot, ang kanyang apong nakatihaya ay matuwid na matuwid na katulad ng isang bangkay, walang kakilus-kilos maaliban, marahil, sa maminsan-minsang pagkibot ng mga labing nanunyo at halos kasiimputla na ng isperma. Maya-maya’y marahang dinama ng kanyang palad ang noo ng nahihimlay na maysakit. Sa gayong pagkakadantay, ang nakahiga ay napakislot na animo’y biglang nagulat ngunit hindi rin nabalino sa pagkakahimbing.

Ang matanda’y nakaramdam ng isang biglang bugso ng lungkot sa kanyang dibdib. Ang lagnat ng bata ay nawala na, dalawang araw na ang nakararaan, salamat sa kanyang santong kalagyo, ngunit ngayo’y. . .
Mahal na Ina ng Awa!
Ito’y kanyang ikinababalisa. Nalalaman niyang ang lagnat na nagbabalik ay lubhang mapanganib.
Bakit, hindi ba siya ang maituturing na nagpalaki sa kanyang apong ito! Kauna-unahan niyang apong lalaki sa kanyang kaisa-isang anak na lalaki, sa katauhan ni Pepe ay ibinuhos ni Impong Sela ang lahat na pagmamahal at pag-aaruga ng isang impo. Hindi halos nalalaman ng mga magulang nito kung paano siya lumaki. Laki sa Nuno ang tawag sa kanya. At tapat sa kasabihang iyon, si Pepe’y lumaki sa layaw, sa malabis na pagpapalayaw.
Siya ang nagging dahilan ng malimit na pagkakagalit I Conrado at ni Impong Sela. May mga pagkakataong ang anak at ang ina ay nagkakapalitan ng maiinit na sagutan, ngunit kailanman, palaging ang matanda ang nagtatagumpay. Hindi niya mapapayagang masaling man lamang ng ama ang kanyang si Pepe.
At saka ngayo’y. . .
Si Impong Sela’y nagsimulang mag-isip nang malalim. Kailangang si Pepe’y maligtas sa kuko ng kamatayan. Sa kanyang pagkalito ay pumasok sa diwa ang gunita ng mga santo, panata, debosyon…

Natatandaan pa niyang ang panata ring yaon ang nagligtas sa kanyang anak na ama ni Pepe
nang ito’y pitong taon pa lamang. Kahimanawari ay ito rin ang magligtas naman sa kanyang apo!
Maya-maya, ang maysakit ay kumilos. Dahan-dahang idinilat niya ang kanyang mga matang wari ay nananaginip at saka tumingin-tingin sa kanyang paligid. Hindi naglaon at namataan niya ang kanyang impo sa kanyang tabi.Inilabas niya ang kanyang kamay sa kumot at saka iniabot ang kamay sa matanda.
Si Pepe’y ay humingi ng pagkain dahil nagugutom siya at ang impo ay nag-atubili upang kumuha ng pagkain.

Pagkaraan ng ilang sandali, Si Impong Sela’y nagbalik na taglay na kanyang kamay ang isang pinggan ng kaning sinabawan ng sinigang na karne , at isang kutsara.

Sa tulong ng kanyang lola, si Pepe’y nakasandal din sa unan. At siya’y sinimulan nang pakainin ni Impong Sela. Isang kutsara. Dalawang kutsara. Tatlo. Apat. Katulad ng isang hayok na hayok sa gutom ay halos sakmalin ni Pepe ang bawat subo ng kanyang lola.
“Nanay! Ano ang . . . ” Si Conrado’y patakbong pumasok sa silid at tinangkang agawin mula kay Impong Sela ang pinggan ng kanin ngunit huli na! Ang pinggan ay halos wala nang laman.
Sinabihan ang ina kong ano ang bilin ng doktor? dahil gusto ibigay ng matanda ang natirang pagkain ni Pepe.
Walang nagawa si Conrado,Siya’y tumahimik nalang.
Si Totoy at si Nene ay nag-atubili at tinapunan ng tingin ang kanilang amang pagkatapos ng mahabang “sermon” ng kanilang lola ay walang nagawa kundi ang magsasawalang- kibo na lamang.
Hinagisan pa mandin ng isang irap ang kanyang anak, at saka hinugot ang tsinelas mula sa kanyang paa.
Nanginginig na sumunod ang mga bata, samantalang ang kanilang ama’y tumatanaw na lamang sa labas ng durungawan.
Kinabukasan, si Pepe’y nahibang sa lagnat. Nagbalik ito sa isang matinding bugso na siyang hindi ikapalagay ng maysakit. Tila siya iniihaw, pabiling-biling sa hihigan, at nakalulunos kung humahalinghing. Sa mga mata ni Sinang na kanyang ina ay nalalarawan ang isang paghihirap ng kaloobang isang ina lamang ang maaaring makadama sa gayong mga sandali, samantalang minamalas niya ang kahambal-hambal na ayos ng kanyang anak. Naroon din si Impong Sela. “Masama ang kanyang lagay.”
Hindi nagkamali ang doctor. Sa loob ng sumunod na oras ay pabali-balikwas si Pepe sa kanyang higaan at naghihiyaw ng kung anu-anong ikinakakagat ng labi ng mga nakamamalas. Ang mga luha ni Sinang ay tila walang-lagot na tanikala. Walang patid. Walang-tila. Ang mga ngipin ni Conrado’y nagtitiim. Samantalang si Impong Sela ‘y bumubulong ng walang katapusang mga panalangin.
Nais ng Mag-asawang Conrado at Sinang na dalhin sa ospital ang anak pero ayaw pumayag si Impong Sela dahil gusto niyang siya mismo ang mag-aalaga ng kanyang apo.
Sa mukha ni Conrado ay biglang sumulak ang dugo! Ibig niyang humiyaw, ibig niyang maghimagsik, ibig niyang magtaklob na ang langit at lupa!
Ngunit mula sa kanyang nangangatal na mga labi ay walang namutawi kundi ang impit na “Diyos ko! ! !” Sa gitna ng kanyang pagluha, ang mabait na si Sinang ay lumapit sa asawa at tinapunan iyon ng isang “hayaan- mo- na- ang- Nanay” . Kasabay ang isang malalim na bunting-hininga si Conrado’y nalugmok sa isang likmuan. Ang salitaan ay napinid na.
Umagang-umaga kinabukasan, nagtaka na lamang sila’t natagpuan nila sa isang sulok si Impong Selang nananangis, umiiyak na nag-iisa. Siya’y hindi man lamang tinuluan ng luha nang si Pepe’y naghihirap at saka ngayon pang si Pepe’y matiwasay na.

” Ang isa pa,” ang patuloy ng matandang hindi siya pinapansin, “kagabi, ang mga manok ay nagputakan. Nang ang nasira mong ama ay namatay ay ganyan din ang nangyari noong huling gabi bago siya pumanaw. Kaawa-awang Pepe kooo!”
At…
Kataka-taka o hindi kataka-taka, ang luha ni Impong Sela ay nagpatuloy ng pagdaloy hanggang ang mga luntiang damo sa ibabaw ng puntod ng pinakamamahal niyang apo ay halos isang dangkal na ang angat sa lupa.

III.
Pagsusuri
A.Uring Pampanitikan
Ang kwentong Impong Sela ay nabibilang o isang Maikling Kwento.

Ang maikling kuwento – binaybay ding maikling kuwento – ay isang maigsing salaysay hinggil sa isang mahalagang pangyayaring kinasasangkutan ng isa o ilang tauhan at may iisang kakintalan o impresyon lamang. Isa itong masining na anyo ng panitikan. Tulad ng nobela at dula, isa rin itong paggagad ng realidad, kung ginagagad ang isang momento lamang o iyong isang madulang pangyayaring naganap sa buhay ng pangunahing tauhan. Si Edgar Allan Poe ang tinuturing na “Ama ng Maikling Kuwento.”

Mga Elemento

Panimula- Dito nakasalalay ang kawilihan ng mga mambabasa. Dito rin kadalasang pinapakilala ang iba sa mga tauhan ng kuwento.
Saglit na Kasiglahan- naglalahad ng panandaliang pagtatagpo ng mga tauhang masasangkot sa suliranin.
Suliranin- Problemang haharapin ng tauhan.
Tunggalian- May apat na uri: tao laban sa tao, tao laban sa sarili, tao laban sa lipunan, tao laban sa kapaligiran o kalikasan.
Kasukdulan- Makakamtan ng pangunahing tauhan ang katuparan o kasawian ng kanyang ipinaglalaban.
Kakalasan- Tulay sa wakas.
Wakas- Ito ang resolusyon o ang kahihinatnan ng kuwento.
Tagpuan- nakasaad ang lugar na pinangyayarihan ng mga aksiyon o mga insidente, gayundin ang panahon kung kailan naganap ang kuwento.
Paksang Diwa- pinaka kaluluwa ng maikling kuwento.
kaisipan- mensahe ng kuwento.
Banghay- pangyayari sa kuwento.

Mga uri

May siyam na uri ng maikling kuwento:

Sa kuwento ng tauhan inilalarawan ang mga pangyayaring pangkaugalian ng mga tauhang nagsisiganap upang mabigyan ng kabuuan ang pag-unawa sa kanila ng isang mambabasa.
Sa kuwento ng katutubong kulay binibigyang-diin ang kapaligiran at mga pananamit ng mga tauhan, ang uri ng pamumuhay, at hanapbuhay ng mga tao sa nasabing pook.
Sa kuwentong bayan nilalahad ang mga kuwentong pinag-uusapan sa kasalukuyan ng buong bayan.
Sa kuwento ng kababalaghan pinag-uusapan ang mga salaysaying hindi kapanipaniwala.
Naglalaman ang kuwento ng katatakutan ng mga pangyayaring kasindak-sindak.
Sa kuwento ng madulang pangyayari binibigyang diin ang kapanapanabik at mahahalagang pangyayari na nakapagpapaiba o nakapagbago sa tauhan.
Sa kuwento ng sikolohiko ipinadarama sa mga mambabasa ang damdamin ng isang tao sa harap ng isang pangyayari at kalagayan. Ito ang uri ng maikling kuwentong bihirang isulat sapagkat may kahirapan ang paglalarawan ng kaisipan.
Sa kuwento ng pakikipagsapalaran, nasa balangkas ng pangyayari ang interes ng kuwento.
Nagbibigay-aliw at nagpapasaya naman sa mambabasa ang kuwento ng katatawanan.

Mayroon mga pagkakaiba ang tema sa mensahe ng isang maikling kuwento. Ang tema ang pangkalahatang kaisipang nais palutangin ng may-akda sa isang maikling kuwento. At ang kaisipang ito ang binibigyan ng layang maikintal sa isipang ng mga mambabasa. Maaaring maging tema ang mga sumusunod: palagay sa mga naganap na pangyayari sa lipunan, obserbasyon ng may-akda tungkol sa pag-uugali ng tao, paniniwala sa isang katotohanan o pilosopiyang tinatanggap ng tao sa buong daigdig sa lahat ng panahon, o ang dahilan ng pagkakasulat ng may-akda. Ang mensahe naman ang tuwirang pangangaral o pagsesermon ng manunulat sa mambabasa.

Mga Bahagi

Ito ang mga bahagi at ng sangkap ng isang maikling kuwento:
Simula

At ang bahagi ng suliranin ang siyang kababasahan ng problemang haharapin ng pangunahing tauhan.
Gitna

Binubuo ang gitna ng saglit na kasiglahan, tunggalian, at kasukdulan. Ang saglit na kasiglahan ang naglalahad ng panandaliang pagtatagpo ng mga tauhang masasangkot sa suliranin. Ang tunggalian naman ang bahaging kababasahan ng pakikitunggali o pakikipagsapalaran ng pangunahing tauhan laban sa mga suliraning kakaharapin, na minsan ay sa sarili, sa kapwa, o sa kalikasan. Samantalang, ang kasukdulan ang pinakamadulang bahagi kung saan makakamtan ng pangunahing tauhan ang katuparan o kasawian ng kanyang ipinaglalaban.
Wakas

Binubuo ang wakas ng kakalasan at katapusan. Ang kakalasan ang bahaging nagpapakita ng unti-unting pagbaba ng takbo ng kuwento mula sa maigting na pangyayari sa kasukdulan. At ang katapusan ang bahaging kababasahan ng magiging resolusyon ng kuwento. Maaring masaya o malungkot, pagkatalo o pagkapanalo.

Gayunpaman, may mga kuwento na hindi laging winawakasan sa pamamagitan ng dalawang huling nabanggit na mga sangkap. Kung minsan, hinahayaan ng may-akda na mabitin ang wakas ng kuwento para bayaang ang mambabasa ang humatol o magpasya kung ano, sa palagay nito, ang maaring kahinatnan ng kuwento.

B. Istilo ng Paglalahad
Ang paglalahad sa kwento ay naaayon sa karaniwang ayos at daloy ng mga kaisipan.
Pinagsunod-sunod ang bawat pangyayari at kaganapan sa kwento upang madaling maiintindihan ng mga mambabasa.

C. Mga Tayutay
1.Ang ina at ang anak ay nagpapalitan ng mainit na sugatan.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole – Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.
2.Kailangan si Pepe’y maligtas sa kuko ng kamatayan.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole – Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.
3.”Mahal na Hesus Nasareno”!!! ang kanyang marahang bulong.
Apostrope o Pagtawag – isang panawagan o pakiusap sa isang bagay na tila ito ay isang tao ast hindi kaharap.
4.Tinapunan ng tingin ang kanilang ama.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole – Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.
5.Tila siya’y iniihaw.
Simili o Pagtutulad – di tiyak na paghahambing ng dalawang magkaibang bagay. Ginagamitan ito ng mga salitang: tulad ng, paris ng, kawangis ng, tila, sing-, sim-, magkasing-, magkasim-, at iba pa. Ito ay tinatawag na Simile sa Ingles.
6.Ang mga luha ni Sinang ay tila walang-lagot na tanikala.
Simili o Pagtutulad – di tiyak na paghahambing ng dalawang magkaibang bagay. Ginagamitan ito ng mga salitang: tulad ng, paris ng, kawangis ng, tila, sing-, sim-, magkasing-, magkasim-, at iba pa. Ito ay tinatawag na Simile sa Ingles.
7.Si Impong Sela ay bumubulong ng walang katapusang panalangin.
Apostrope o Pagtawag – isang panawagan o pakiusap sa isang bagay na tila ito ay isang tao ast hindi kaharap.
8.Sa mukha ni Conrado ay biglang sumulak ang dugo.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole – Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.
9.Ibig niyang magtaklob ang langit at lupa.
Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole – Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan.

D.Sariling Reaksyon
1.Pananalig Pampanitikan
Ang pokus ng teoryang humanismo ay ang tao. Naniniwala ang mga humanista na ang tao ang sukatan ng lahat ng bagay kung kaya’t mahalagang maipagkaloob sa kanya ang kalayaan sa pagpapahayag ng saloobin at kalayaan sa pagpapasya. Gaya ng ipinahahayag ni Protagoras, “Ang tao ang sentro ng daigdig, ang sukatan ng lahat ng bagay at ang panginoon ng kanyang kapalaran.”

Ninanais ng tao na sa kanyang pakikiraan sa daigdig na ito ay may bakas siyang maiiwan upang ang kanyang buhay ay magkaroon ng kabuluhan at malinaw na pagkilala sa isang di maikukubling kasaysayan.
Sa kwento ,ipinakita ni Impong Sela ang kanyang pag-alala sa apong nagkasakit.Isang lolang nagpapakain at nag-aalaga sa apo kung saan hindi siya humingi ng bayad sa mga natulong ng apo dahil mahal niya ito.

REALISMO
Sa teoryang ito higit na mahalaga ang katotohanan kaysa kagandahan . May mga bahaging nagpapakita ng mga makatotohanang paglalarawan sa tao , lipunan at kapaligiran.
Ang mga akdang nasa ilalim nito ay nagsasalaysay ng mga pangyayari sa buhay ng pangunahing tauhan at iba pang katulong na tauhan . Pinagbabatayan nito ang totoong buhay na madaling madama ng mga mambabasa . Nangangailangan ng mahabang panahon ang mga pangyayari . Marami rin ang tagpuan. Ito’y na mayagpag sa Panahon ng Kastila at Makabagong Panahon.
Ang teoryang ito ay may kaugnayan sa kwento dahil ang kwentong “Impong Sela” ay naglalarawan sa totoong pangyayari ng tao sa kasalukuyang panahon.

Ang klasisismo o klasismo ay isa sa teoryang pampanitikan ay nagmula sa Gresya, sinasabi rito na kaisipan muna kaysa sa damdamin. Mas higit na pinapahalagahan ang kaisipian kaysa sa damdamin. Ito ay kasalungat ng teoryang romantisismo. Ipinahahayag ng klasismo na ang isang akda ay hindi naluluma o nalalaos, sa kabilang dako ay nangyayari o nagaganap parin sa kasalukuyan. Nakasaad rin dito na nakatuon ang panitikan sa pinakamataas patungo sa pinakamabababang uri. Ibig sabihin, sa itaas matatagpuan ang kapangyarihan at kagandahan. Aristrokratiko ang pananaw na umiiral dito.
Sa pagmamahal ng ama ni Pepe,gusto itong dalhin sa ospital dahil mag-isang linggo na itong nagkalagnat at hindi pa gumagaling.Pero ayaw pumayag ang Impo na dalhin ang apo dahil gusto niyang siya mismo ang Mag-aalaga nito.
Sa sitwasyon ito pinapairal nina Impong Sela at Conrado ang kani-kanilang damdamin at isipan. Bagkus, ang dalawa ay hindi magkasingkatulad ng desisyon.May nagpapairal ng isipan ,mayroon ding damdamin.

2.Mga pansin at Puna
a.Mga Tauhan
Sa napapansin ko,maganda ang usapan sa kwento.Maayos ang kani-kanilang ginampanang papel pero ang asal ni Impo na ayaw niyang dalhin si Pepe sa ospital ang hindi ko nagustuhan.kung sa madaling panahon nadala ang Pepe sa ospital,siguro buhay siya ngayon at saka naaagapan pa niya ang kanyang sakit.
Sabi nga nila “Nasa huli ang pagsisisi” hindi na maibabalik ang oras na dumadaan.
Isa pa kailangan ang magulang ni Pepe ang mismong mag-aalaga sa kanya dahil hindi dapat ipapaubaya sa iba ang responsibilidad ng magulang sa anak.

b.Galaw ng Pangyayari
Maganda ang paglalahad sa kwento at maayos ang pagkasunod-sunod ng mga pangyayari.
Ito’y magandang basahin dahil nakakaenganyo ng bawat mambabasa.Ang bawat nilalaman ay naglalaman ng magandang aral at asal sa atin.

3. Bisang Pampanitikan
1. Bisa sa Isip = ito ang unang dapat taglayin ng isang akda. Katangian itong taglay na nagbubunsod sa mambabasa na mag-isip upang yumaman at umunlad ang kanyang diwa o isipan.
Dapat pag-isipan muna ni Impong Sela ang sitwasyon at posibleng mangyari sa apo bago pa siya magdesisyon na hindi dalhin sa ospital si Pepe.Samantala si Conrado ay nais niyang tulungan ang kanyang anak na maligtas sa nararamdamang sakit na dalhin si Pepe sa ospital pero pinanaig ng Impo ang sobrang pag-aalaga nito.

2. Bisang Kaasalan = Ang akda ay hindi lamang nilikha upang magbigay ng dunong sa mambabasa. Nilikha rin ito upang magbigay-aral at humubog ng katauhan.
Ang aral sa kwento ay hindi dapat magdesisyon na padalos-dalos dahil sa ito’y nakakasama sa iba at saka dapat tumayo sa sariling paa ang anak na may asawa na.matutong mamuhay at manindigan nang para sa pamilya niya.

3. Bisa sa Pandamdamin = Sinasabing ang bisang ito ang siyang pinakamahalagang katangian ng isang akdang pampanitikanm Ginigising ng isang akda ang damdamin ng mambabasa kung ang damdamin din ng mga tauhan o ng may-akda ay malinaw na naipahahayag sa mga pandamdam, sa guniguni at sa puso ng mambabasa.
Sa sobrang pag-alala ng Impo sa kanyang apo halos tawagin niya ang lahat ng santo upang tulungan siya. Araw-araw siyang nagdasal para sa kaligtasan ng pinakamamahal na Pepe.
Ginawa niya lahat ng makakaya niya katulad na lamang; siya ang nagpapakain sa apo dahil mahal na mahal niya ito.

4.Bisa sa Lipunan
Sa bisang ito ay may kaugnayan sa kwento dahil ang tao ay may interaksyon sa lipunan.Katulad na lamang ni Impong Sela bilang isang kasapi sa pamilya at ina ni Conrado ginampanan niya ang kanyang papel para sa pagmamahal ng apo. de bale walang bayad, ang sa kanya makatulong sa iba.

misor

Laguindingan International Airport
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Laguindingan International Airport
Pandaigdigang Paliparan ng Laguindingan (Filipino)
Tugpahanang Pangkalibutanon sa Laguindingan (Cebuano)
Laguindingan International Airport main building.JPG
Facade of the Laguindingan International Airport.
IATA: CGY – ICAO: RP02
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
Serves Cagayan de Oro, Iligan City
Location Barangay Moog, Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental
Opened June 15, 2013
Coordinates 8°36′45″N 124°27′26″ECoordinates: 8°36′45″N 124°27′26″E
Website Official Website
Map
CGY/RP02 is located in Philippines
CGY/RP02
Location in the Philippines
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
09/27 2,100 6,890 Concrete

Laguindingan International Airport (Filipino: Paliparang Pandaigdig ng Laguindingan, Cebuano: Tugpahanang Pangkalibutanon sa Laguindingan) (IATA: CGY, ICAO: RP02) is the main airport that serves the cities of Iligan and Cagayan de Oro, as well as the provinces of Misamis Oriental and Lanao del Norte, and the rest of the region of Northern Mindanao in the Philippines. The airport is the first international airport in the region; however, currently the airport has no international routes to serve.

The airport sits on a 4.17 square kilometer site in Barangay Moog, Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental,[1] and is located 46 kilometers away from the city center of Cagayan de Oro. It opened last June 15, 2013 which replaced Lumbia Airport in Barangay Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro.[2][3]

Contents

1 Overview
2 History
2.1 Funding and implementation
2.2 Construction
2.3 Opening
3 Airlines and destinations
4 Future
4.1 Expansion
4.2 Aerotropolis
5 Accidents and incidents
6 Gallery
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

Overview

The airport project is located in the Municipality of Laguindingan, Province of Misamis Oriental, Northern Mindanao, Philippines. The airport project envisages the development of new major trunkline airport compliant to international standards as to safety and operation in order to meet the air transportation demand of the region.[4] The airport project also aims to boost the economic activities specifically of the Cagayan-Iligan Corridor, and expected to serve as the northern gateway to Mindanao.

The airport complex features a single 2,100 x 45 meter runway, which can accommodate four plane landings and takeoffs an hour.[5][6] It also features a 7,184 square meter passenger terminal building which can accommodate 1.6 million of passengers a year.[7] The airport can accommodate 2,000 passengers a day.[8]
History
Funding and implementation
Sources of funds for the Laguindingan Airport Development Project[9]
Source of funds Funds (in millions of US$)
from the South Korea’s Economic Development and Cooperation Fund 30.60 million
from the Export Credit Loan facility of the KEXIM 62.75 million
from the Philippine Government 60.36 million
for the Air Navigation and Support facilities from KEXIM[10] 13.38 million

The airport project is implemented by the Philippine Government through the Department of Transportation and Communications. After the completion of the project, the airport was turned-over to the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines.

The approved cost of the airport project is US$ 167.09 million or ₱ 7.853 billion.[11] The cost was duly approved by the National Economic and Development Authority Board on August 30, 2007. Plans for the airport have existed since 1991, but have been stymied by land acquisition and financing problems. Although the Philippine government has signed a US$ 25 million soft loan agreement with the South Korean government through its Economic Development Cooperation Fund, there has been difficulty in raising counterpart funding for acquisition of the estimated 300 hectares of land eventually required by the airport complex.

The Laguindingan Airport Development Project was inaugurated on January 10, 2006 with groundbreaking ceremonies presided by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who advocated the idea of an international airport in the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor.[12][13]
Construction
The north bound section of the airport’s access road.

By July 2007, the construction of the 4.4 kilometer four-lane access road had been undertaken by the Davao City based V. Lao Construction Corporation. The four-lane access road was designed to connect the new airport to the national road.

By early 2008, the start of grading of the airport site area. It is headed by the Department of Transportation and Communications and its foreign and local consultants, South Korea based Yooshin Engineering Corporation and Ortigas Center, Pasig based SCHEMA Konsult, Inc. respectively, and Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction Company as the general contractor of the project. As of March 15, 2013, it is 98.66% completed.[14]
Opening

On April 18, 2013, DOTC announced that the opening of the airport would be pushed back to June 15, 2013 instead of April 30, 2013 because CAAP has received requests from airline companies to postpone the transfer until after the summer peak season, because the April 30 opening would require the cancellation of several daily trips.[15][16] The airport has still to install an Instrument Landing System, to be installed in May 2014, in order to facilitate evening flights.[17][18] The airport was inaugurated by President Benigno Aquino III last June 13, 2013, two days prior to its opening.[19]
Airlines and destinations
A flight information screen seen at the arrival area.
Airlines Destinations
AirAsia Zest Cebu, Manila
Cebu Pacific[8] Bacolod, Cebu, Davao, Iloilo, Manila, Zamboanga
Philippine Airlines
operated by PAL Express[8] Cebu, Davao, Manila
Future
Expansion

In August 2013, the Project Development and Monitoring Facility Board has approved for the revision of the operations and maintenance of the airport. The operations and maintenance of the airport was already approved for funding, but was revised to include the construction of a new airport terminal to the winning PPP bidder. The Department of Transportation and Communications was tasked to construct the airport terminal along with other airside civil works, air navigational facilities, landslide building works, and as well as other facilities. The revision was part of maintaining the airport in par with ICAO standards.[20]
Aerotropolis

Ayala Land, who originally owns 183 of 417 hectares of the land acquired by the government to develop the airport complex, has future plans to develop an aerotropolis around the airport.[21][22] This is part of the pre-conditions granted by Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines for expropriating the lands the government bought from the corporation.[1] Ayala Corporation, the parent company of Ayala Land, is also one of the bidders in privatizing, through the public-private partnership scheme, the operations and maintenance of the airport.[7]
Accidents and incidents

On August 8, 2013, the soldiers and the police deployed in the airport complex were alerted after two bomb sniffing dogs stopped in an abandoned Toyota Avanza parked at the airport around 3:30 PM (PST).[23] The suspected bomb was found to be only spray paints. Several flights were cancelled due to this incident.[24][25]

Gallery
The Laguindingan International Airport Complex
The airport complex as seen from the airport access road.
The airport complex as seen from the airport access road.
View of the facade of the airport’s Passenger Terminal building.
View of the facade of the airport’s Passenger Terminal building.
Plane RP-C88997 of Zest Airways parking at the tarmac.
A Cebu Pacific plane taking off airport’s runway.
A Cebu Pacific plane taking off airport’s runway.
Plane RP-C88997 of Zest Airways parking at the tarmac.
An ATR-72 aircraft of Cebu Pacific parking at the tarmac.
An ATR-72 aircraft of Cebu Pacific parking at the tarmac.
The arrival area of Laguindingan International Airport.
The arrival area of Laguindingan International Airport.
See also